The image by Atena Farghadani depicted Iranian MPs casting votes on the proposed legislation as animals.
Ms Farghadani, 28, faces charges of spreading propaganda, insulting MPs, and insulting the supreme leader.
The laws would end decades of family planning in Iran, outlawing vasectomies and restricting contraception.
Ms Farghadani was first arrested in August 2014, when her home was raided by Iran's Revolutionary Guards, and taken to Gharchak prison.
She was released in December but was rearrested again in January after posting a video online in which she alleged that she had been beaten by prison guards and interrogated for up to nine hours a day.
Three weeks after being rearrested, Ms Farghadani went on hunger strike to protest against conditions at the prison. She was taken to hospital in late February after suffering a heart attack and briefly losing consciousness.
She has since been held in solitary confinement in Tehran's Evin Prison.