Abdul Aziz ibn Saud embraced a form of fundamentalist Islam know as Wahhabism. Ibn Saud had expanded his reach from a small string of oasis villages in the Riyadh region to cover a vast expanse of northeastern Arabia.
In 1916 TE Lawrence argued in "The politics of Mecca" that Ibn Saud and the Wahhabists posed as Islamic reformists "with all the narrow minded bigotry of the puritan" and ibn Saud and his Wahhabists were hardly representative of Islam. He warned in the politics of Mecca that the Wahhabist sect was composed of marginal medievalists, "and if it prevailed, we would have in place of the tolerant, rather comfortable Islam of Mecca and Damascus, the fanaticism of Nejd...intensified and swollen by success."
In 1923, ibn Saud and the Wahhabists would conquer much of the Arabian Peninsula and, to honor his clan, give it the name Saudi Arabia. For the next ninety years, the vast and profligate Saudi royal family would survive by essentially buying off the doctrinaire Wahhabists who had brought them to power, financially subsidizing their activities so long as their disciples directed their jihadist efforts abroad. The most famous product of this arrangement was to be a man named Osama bin Laden.